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https://www.prod.org.br/article/doi/10.1590/S0103-65132013005000084
Production
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Avaliação de opções de swing em contratos de gás natural usando um modelo de dois fatores

Pricing swing options embedded in natural gas contracts using a two-factor model

Samanez, Carlos Patricio; Costa, Leticia de Almeida

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Resumo

No mercado de gás natural (GN), muitos contratos incorporam flexibilidades no volume, conhecidas como opções de swing, as quais concedem ao titular a opção de exercer o direito de receber volumes maiores ou menores, de acordo com o mercado. Neste artigo, o preço do GN é a principal fonte de incerteza e foi modelado com um processo estocástico seguindo o modelo de dois fatores de Schwartz e Smith (2000) ao qual foi incorporada a sazonalidade trimestral. Para estimar os preços à vista do GN, usando os preços dos contratos futuros do Henry Hub, implementou-se o filtro de Kalman. O apreçamento da opção foi realizado através do modelo de árvore binomial bivariável desenvolvido por Hahn e Dyer (2011). O valor da opção de swing foi positivo nos dois casos analisados, mostrando que essa opção tem valor e deve ser analisada para inclusão nos contratos de GN. As características do contrato analisado foram as mesmas especificadas em Jaillet, Ronn e Tompaidis (2004).

Palavras-chave

Finanças. Derivativos. Precificação de contratos. Processos estocásticos

Abstract

In the natural gas (NG) market, contracts incorporate flexibility in the volume of the product. These contracts are known as swing options. Such contracts allow the option holder to exercise the right to receive greater or smaller amounts of NG contracted in accordance with market. Variation in the price of NG, which is the main source of uncertainty, was modeled in this study as a stochastic process using the two-factor model of Schwartz and Smith (2000), which was incorporated into assessment of the quarterly seasonality. To estimate NG spot prices using the Henry Hub prices of futures contracts traded on the NYMEX, it was necessary to implement the Kalman filter. The pricing of the option was conducted using the binomial tree model bi-variable developed by Hahn and Dyer (2011). The value of the swing option was positive in both cases analyzed, indicating that this option should be considered for inclusion in NG contracts. The characteristics of the analysis were the same as those specified in Jaillet, Ronn and Tompaidis (2004).

Keywords

Finance. Derivatives. Contracts pricing. Stochastic processes

References



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