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Avaliação de Impacto do Ciclo de Vida: revisão dos principais métodos

Life Cycle Impact Assessment: a review of the main methods

Mendes, Natalia Crespo; Bueno, Cristiane; Ometto, Aldo Roberto

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Resumo

Avaliação de Impacto do Ciclo de Vida (AICV) é a terceira fase da Avaliação do Ciclo de Vida (ACV) e tem como finalidade avaliar a significância ambiental dos resultados do inventário por meio de modelos e fatores de caracterização contidos nos métodos de AICV. Nesse contexto, este trabalho tem como objetivo identificar os principais métodos de AICV e descrever suas características. Por meio de uma revisão da literatura foram identificados 13 métodos de AICV, desenvolvidos majoritariamente em países da Europa e utilizados em todo o mundo, inclusive no Brasil. Dentre esses métodos foram reconhecidos aqueles que apresentam escopo de aplicação global, sendo recomendados para uso no Brasil. Cada método de AICV avalia as diferentes categorias de impacto por meio de uma série de modelos de caracterização, assim, concluiu-se ser necessário analisarem-se os procedimentos de cálculos utilizados por cada modelo, a fim de fornecer subsídios para aplicação desses métodos e modelos nas diferentes regiões do mundo.

Palavras-chave

Avaliação de Impacto do Ciclo de Vida. Métodos de Avaliação de Impacto do Ciclo de Vida.

Abstract

Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) is the third phase of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). It involves assessing the environmental significance of inventory results by using characterization models and factors contained in LCIA methods. This paper identifies the main LCIA methods and describes their characteristics. Through a literature review, 13 LCIA methods were identified. Most of them were developed in Europe and have been used throughout the world, including Brazil. Among these methods have been identified those with a global scope of application, being recommended for the use in Brazil. Each LCIA method evaluates different impact categories by means of a number of different characterization models, so it was concluded that there is a need to analyze the calculation procedures used by each model to provide support for the application of these methods and models in different regions of the world.

Keywords

Life Cycle Impact Assessment. Life Cycle Impact Assessment Methods.

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